The number needed to harm (NNH) was estimated according to treatment duration.Results10 studies were included, representing a total of 6546 participants (4020 received DPP 4 inhibitors plus sulphonylureas, 2526 placebo plus sulphonylureas). The risk ratio of hypoglycaemia was 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.29 to 1.80). The NNH was 17 (95% confidence interval 11 to 30) for a treatment duration of six months or less, 15 (9 to 26) for 6.1 to 12 months, and 8 (5 to 15) for more than one year.

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pandora jewelry The reported associations were somewhat stronger in studies done in Mediterranean countries and somewhat weaker in studies done in western European countries and Sweden,2 7 8 9 10 although no statistically significant heterogeneity existed.6 However, no attempt has been made to investigate the relative importance of the individual components of the Mediterranean diet (and of the Mediterranean diet score) in the generation of the inverse association of increased adherence to this diet and overall mortality.We have evaluated the contribution of the nine widely accepted components of the Mediterranean diet (high intake of vegetables, fruits and nuts pandora canada, legumes, fish and seafood, and cereals; low intake of meat and meat products and dairy products; high ratio of monounsaturated to saturated lipids; and moderate intake of ethanol) in the inverse association of this diet with all cause mortality in a population based cohort in Greece.MethodsEuropean Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition The study population consisted of the participants in the Greek segment of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is run in 23 research centres across 10 European countries, with the purpose of investigating the role of biological, dietary, lifestyle, and environmental factors in causing cancer and other chronic diseases.11 12In Greece, 28572 apparently healthy men and women aged 20 86 years were recruited from the general population throughout the country between 1994 and 1997. Trained interviewers administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaires to participants at enrolment, and trained health professionals made somatometric measurements.Data on dietDietary intakes during the year preceding enrolment were assessed with the use of a validated food frequency questionnaire that includes approximately 150 foods and beverages commonly consumed in Greece.13 Standard portion sizes were used for the estimation of consumed quantities, and nutrient and ethanol intakes were calculated by using a food composition database modified to accommodate the particularities of the Greek diet.14 For each participant, grams per day of intake of various food groups and nutrients, as well as total energy intake, were calculated.For this analysis, we focused on nine nutritional variables: vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, dairy products, cereals, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, monounsaturated to saturated lipid ratio, and ethanol.Mediterranean diet scoreWe assessed the conformity to the traditional Mediterranean diet with a 10 unit scale.7 The scale relies on nine dietary components that capture the essence of the traditional Mediterranean diet pandora jewelry.